Inter Caetera – Division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal – May 4, 1493 [Bull] Pope Alexander VII April 7, 1655 to May 22, 1667. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. Borgia was forced to end his public relationship with Cattanei, who remained the matriarch of the family from her own residence in Rome. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. His reign is memorable in the annals of moral … Peter's - Guide to the Basilica and Square' Opposite and on the right, is the famous monument of Alexander VII (1655-1667), the last great masterpiece of the … In The Rhetoric Fiction, Wayne Booth (1961, ed. But in the consistory of 24 April, 1656, influenced by those who feared the weakness of a papal court unsustained by ties of family interest, he proposed to bring his brother and nephews to assist him. Pope Alexander VII - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia Rodrigo Borgia, the baby boy who would become Pope Alexander VI, one of the most infamous Popes of all time, was born in Valencia, Spain on New Year's Day in 1431. 1. Borgia sought to appear as a great Pope, despite his engagement in public lechery, simony, and other forms of corruption. Due to poor health that began in infancy he was educated primarily at home, first by his mother and subsequently by tutors. Pope Alexander VI (Latin: Alexander Sextus; 1431–1503), born Rodrigo Lanzol y Borja, was an Spanish cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 215th Pope from 1492 to 1503. As the Spanish faction was well disposed towards Chigi there now remained only Donna Olympia to win over. Vol. Cardinal Hergenröther praises (Kirchengesch. His pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family were seen as excessive. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. The administration was given largely into the hands of his relatives, and nepotic abuses came to weigh as heavily as ever upon the papacy. The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. The endeavours of the Chigi to enrich their family were too indulgently regarded by the Pope; but, ever pious and devout, he was far from having a share in the excesses of his luxury-loving nephews. The French prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, had not forgiven the legate who resolutely opposed him at the conferences of Munster and Osnabrück, or the papal secretary of state who stood in the way of his anti-Roman policy. He was also a patron of learning, modernized the Roman University, known as Sapienza, and enriched it with a magnificent library. Pope Alexander VI: The Papal bull Inter Caetera (4 May 1493; Translation) Columbus Manuscript; Christopher Columbus describes the new lands he has discovered. Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. Anacletus, 77–78. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. Download this artwork (provided by The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Peterson, John Bertram. Omissions? Pope John XII (955 to 964) Attaining the title of pope at age 18, John XII was quickly deemed lazy … Fabio Chigi was born at Siena in 1599, the son of a distinguished family of bankers. Alexander VII, original name Fabio Chigi, (born Feb. 13, 1599, Siena, Republic of Florence—died May 22, 1667, Rome), pope from 1655 to 1667. Quart.Review, April, 1900.] My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo, the husband of his granddaughter Isabella, Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of N… Secretary of state to Pope Innocent X in 1651 and made cardinal in 1652, Chigi was elected pope on April 7. He Kept Multiple Mistresses. The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City, United States. At a time when churchmen were being forced to realize the deplorable consequences, moral and financial, of nepotism, there was needed a pope who would rule without the aid of relatives. MLA citation. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A seventeenth-century pamphlet credited to Ayres, titled A short Account of the Life and Death of Pope Al… Abandoning their support of either pope, they called a council at Pisa in 1409, where they deposed both the Roman and Avignonese claimants and elected a third, Alexander V, who established the papal throne at Pisa. The decree asserts the rights of Spain and Portugal to colonize, convert, and enslave. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". . His reign is memorable in the annals of moral theology for the condemnation of a number of erroneous propositions. In 1662 the equally hostile Duc de Crequi was made ambassador. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. In the conclave of 1655, famous for its duration of eighty days, and for the clash of national and factional interests, Cardinal Chigi was unanimously elected Pope. Learn more about this artwork. The conclave believed he was strongly opposed to the nepotism then prevalent. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. New York: Robert Appleton Company. That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. "Pope Alexander VII." Birthplace: Játiva, Spain Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, . Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Houses were levelled to make way for straighter streets and broad piazzas, the Collegio Romano. The inimical relations between Spain and Portugal occasioned by the latter's establishment of independence (1640) were a source of grave trials for Alexander, as for other popes before and after him. A notorious reputation precedes her, and she is inextricably, … Corrections? Evaristus, 97–105. a historical landmark in the Vatican renowned for its use of symmetry, commissioned by Pope Alexander VII to celebrate the feast of St. Corpus Christi "Burghers of Calais," 1886 Auguste Rodin, Displayed on … Alexander VII did much to beautify Rome. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). Maria del Popolo, titular church of more than one of the Chigi cardinals, the Scala Regia, the Chair of St. Peter in the Vatican Basilica, and the great colonnade before that edifice bespeak alike the genius of Bernini and the munificence of his papal patron. (See LOUIS XIV.) 5. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. 3. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Alexander VI was a pope who lived during the 15 th century, when Italy was experiencing the Renaissance.He is considered to be one of the most controversial popes in the history of the Roman Catholic Church .Instead of focusing on spiritual matters, Alexander was more concerned with material wealth and earthly power. Pope Alexander VII Gasparo Morone. 6. Ecclesiastical approbation. Alexander VII, who as adviser of Innocent X had vigorously advocated the condemnation, confirmed it in 1665 by the Bull "Ad Sacram" declaring that it applied to the aforesaid work of Jansen and to the very meaning intended by him; he also sent to France his famous "formulary", to be signed by all the clergy as a means of detecting and extirpating Jansenism. During this time period, a life as a Catholic priest was considered to be an excellent career move for young men regardless of their personal piety. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. AKA Rodrigo de Borja. Sixtus I, 115–25? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. (20 November 1493; manuscript) Treaty Between Spain and Portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas (4 September 1479; English translation) Tratado de Tordesilhas Divided the New World for Portugal, Spain. Pope Alexander VII (13 February 1599 – 22 May 1667), born Fabio Chigi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. Clement I, 88–97. Pope Alexander VII Era: 1655-1667. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-VII, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Alexander VII. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. This is an incomplete list of papal bulls, listed by the year in which each was issued.. Peterson, J.B. (1907). 6943005, citing Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli, Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy ; Maintained by Find A Grave . Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667.The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families.In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". Quart. Pope Alexander VI was born Rodrigo Borgia in the Spanish town of Xàtiva, near Valencia, in 1431. 2. 1. Updates? However, he prevented Louis XIV from sending the usual embassy of obedience to Alexander VII, and, while he lived, hindered the appointment of a French ambassador to Rome, diplomatic affairs being meantime conducted by cardinal protectors, generally personal enemies of the Pope. The Catholic Encyclopedia. The pontificate of Alexander VII was shadowed by continual difficulties with the young and ill-advised Louis XIV of France, whose representatives were a constant source of annoyance to the Pope. When Innocent X died, Chigi, the candidate favoured by Spain, was elected pope after eighty days in the conclave, on 7 April 1655, taking the name of Alexander VII.. Nepotism. Cath. His pontificate was marked by several disputes; he confirmed the condemnation of Jansenism but supported the Jesuits, allowing them to use Chinese rites for their mission work in China. Urban VIII and Alexander VII each occupied the papal throne during the seventeenth century, and were munificent and discriminating patrons of the arts, as well as men of conspicuous erudition and imagination. In this era, it wasn’t too scandalous for high-ranking church officials to … He sought help from Charles VIII of France (1483–1498), who was allied to Ludovico "Il Moro" (the Moor, so called because of his swarthy complexion) Sforza, the de factoDuke of Milan, who needed French support to legitimise his rule. Alexander VII, who as adviser of Innocent X had vigorously advocated the condemnation, confirmed it in 1665 by the Bull "Ad Sacram" declaring that it applied to the aforesaid work of Jansen and to the very meaning intended by him; he also sent to France his famous "formulary", to be signed by all the clergy as a means of detecting and extirpating Jansenism. (See THIRTY-YEARS WAR.) The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. His tomb by Bernini is one of the most beautiful monuments in St. Peter's. Details. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667. Through the support of Cardinal Alfonso Borgia, Rodrigo o… This article intends to distinguish him from the many other men to have donned the crown and vestments of his title in the hope that the information will better stand out in the mind of its audience. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). They were also sensitive, inspired, and highly accomplished poets. Alexander VII: Alexander Septimus: Fabio Chigi: Siena, Tuscany, Italy 20 June 1667 to 9 December 1669 Clement IX: Clemens Nonus: Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy 29 April 1670 to 22 July 1676 Clement X: Clemens Decimus: Emilio Altieri Rome, Italy 21 September 1676 to 11/12 August 1689 Innocent XI Blessed Innocent Innocentius Undecimus He assisted the Venetians in combating the Turks who had gained a foothold in Crete, and obtained in return the restoration of the Jesuits, exiled from Venice since 1606. 4. His burden being in this way lightened, he passed much of his time in literary pursuits and in the society of the learned; but the friends whom he favoured were those who could be best relied on as counsellors. (See JANSENIUS.) Innocent X called him to Rome in 1651 to be his secretary of state, and in February, 1652, made him Cardinal. The future Pope's father, Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Paul V, though not as prosperous as his forebears, gave his son a suitable training. Cath. In his twenty-seventh year, he obtained the doctorates of philosophy, law, and theology in the University of Sienna, and in December, 1626, he entered upon his ecclesiastical career at Rome. 7. The latter owed much also to his mother, a woman of singular power and skill in the formation of youth. Lucrezia Borgia was an Italian noblewoman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI. With their advent came a marked change in the manner of life of the pontiff. Pope Alexander VII Fabio Chigi. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Alexander VII died at age 66 from kidney failure. . Alexander I, 105–15. He also made extensive additions to the Vatican Library. (See SARPI, VENICE.) His uncle, Alfonso Borgia, was a cardinal, and his parents decided early in his life that Rodrigo was destined to join his uncle in the Catholic Church. March 1, 1907. For a year the hopes of Christendom seemed to be realized. Alexander VII, original name Fabio Chigi, (born Feb. 13, 1599, Siena, Republic of Florence—died May 22, 1667, Rome), pope from 1655 to 1667. The choice was considered providential. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. Title: Pope Alexander VII; Creator: Gasparo Morone; Date Created: 17th century; Pope Alexander VI. The decorations of the church of Sta. This principle received its most famous epigrammatic articulation in Alexander Pope's apothegm from "An Essay on Criticism" (1711) urging that "The sound must seem an echo to the sense" (1. From: 'St. Nihil Obstat. Imprimatur. Unable to attend school, he was taught first by his mother, and later by able tutors, and displayed remarkable precocity and love of reading. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the “Magnificent”. Source(s): c2+: CB; b: The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, 19 Feb 1652 Contact information. Emboldened by these triumphs, the French Jansenists, who recognized in Alexander an old enemy, became insolently assertive, professing that the propositions condemned in 1653 were not to be found in the "Augustinus" of Cornelius Jansen. Alexander VII, given name Fabio Chigi, Roman Catholic Pope from 1655 to 1667, was born at Siena on the 13th of February 1599. The youth of Fabio was marked by continued ill-health, consequent upon an attack of apoplexy in infancy. He was successively inquisitor at Malta, vice-legate at Ferrara, and nuncio in Cologne (1639-51). Pope Alexander VI August 11, 1492 to August 18, 1503. III,414) his moderation in the heated dogmatic controversies of the period. During his reign occurred the conversion of Queen Christina of Sweden, who, after her abdication, came to reside in Rome, where on Christmas Day, 1655, she was confirmed by the Pope, in whom she found a generous friend and benefactor. Borgia took the name "Pope Alexander VI", and his papacy began on 11 August 1492. The princes, however, were tired of war and, despite his admonition, yielded to France and the Protestants. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Gerard Haffner. APA citation. His own sanctity of life, severity of morals, and aversion to luxury made more resplendent his virtues and talents. In 1627 he was appointed by Urban VIII Vice-Legate of Ferrara, and he served five years under the Cardinals Sacchetti and Pallotta, whose commendations won for him the important post of Inquisitor of Malta, together with the episcopal consecration. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Pope Alexander VII. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). 365). http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. In 1639 he was promoted to the nunciature of Cologne; and in 1644 was made envoy extraordinary of Innocent X to the conference of Münster, in which post he energetically defended papal interests during the negotiations that led, in 1648, to the Peace of Westphalia. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. Linus, 67–76? This article was transcribed for New Advent by Gerard Haffner. Pope Alexander VI issues a papal bull or decree, “Inter Caetera," in which he authorizes Spain and Portugal to colonize the Americas and its Native peoples as subjects. Alexander forbade his relatives to come to Rome. By his high-handed abuse of the traditional right of asylum granted to ambassadorial precincts in Rome, he precipitated a quarrel between France and the papacy, which resulted in the Pope's temporary loss of Avignon and his forced acceptance of the humiliating treaty of Pisa in 1664. During the conclave he had been bitterly hostile to Chigi, but was in the end compelled to accept his election as a compromise. During the negotiations leading to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), he refused to deliberate with the Protestant heretics and urged the Catholic princes not to sacrifice the rights of the church. Peter, d. 64–67. The decrees of some papal bulls were often tied to the circumstances of time and place, and may have been adjusted, attenuated, or abrogated by subsequent popes as situations changed. Pope Alexander VII Alexander VII was the 237th person to lead the Catholic Church and the seventh among them to take the papal name of Alexander. Transcription. Alexander VII was the pope who commissioned Bernini to enclose St. Peter's Square with the colonnade. cit.) She was trapped by a complicated network of falsehoods into withdrawing her opposition and so on April 7th, after a conclave which had lasted for eighty days, Chigi became Pope Alexander VII. 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