In Ground Above Ground Commercial By Category . Contributed by Dale Smith Photos by Phil Garbutt. Brocher, T.M., Boatwright, J., Lienkaemper, J.J., Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Bundock, H.P., 2018, The Hayward Fault—Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? The Hayward fault is the red line, the Chabot fault is the blue line, and I’ve added the lidar swath along the fault between the light-blue lines. Bon choix! The mainshock begins beneath the City of Oakland (star) and causes the Hayward Fault to rupture along about 52 miles of its length (thick black line). Publication type: Report: Publication Subtype: USGS Numbered Series: Title: The Hayward Fault, we can't ignore it; a video tape; Part 1, Faults, earthquake history and Hayward Fault tour, and Part 2, Fault creep, earthquake hazards and the future This fault, called a “tectonic time bomb,” is about 74 miles long. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. These data are a geospatial representation of liquefaction potential for the HayWired earthquake scenario, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault on April 18, 2018, with an epicenter in the city of Oakland, CA. Towns in the East Bay suffered the most severe damage. A section of sidewalk in Hayward that showed the movement of the Hayward Fault was 'fixed' by the city, much to the dismay of geologists. mini wrote a review Jan 2020. English. Fault: Hayward Fault Zone: Type: Strike-slip: Areas affected: San Francisco Bay Area California United States: Total damage: $350,000 / Moderate : Max. Meanwhile, much of the fault moves slowly, without earthquakes, in the form of aseismic creep. Hayward is the 37th biggest city in California by how many people live there. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Innovations included a stronger course of brick-laying, incorporating iron binders into brick walls, and interior iron framing. The mapped traces represent the integration of the following three different types of data: (1) geomorphic expression, (2) creep (aseismic fault slip),and (3) trench exposures. Hayward has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 6 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 17 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 319 earthquakes in the past 365 days North of Hayward, the city of Oakland is the largest on the Hayward fault. Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake faultin the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. It is located within its central section, between the latitudes of San Jose and Bakersfield. Arrows show relative movement on the fault. The Hayward fault is part of the wide plate boundary between the two largest lithospheric plates: the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. Comparing the ShakeMaps from the 1868 Hayward and the 1989 (magnitude 6.9) Loma Prieta earthquakes shows that a repeat of the 1868 quake would produce much higher levels of shaking and damage in the East Bay than the 1989 quake. At San Leandro, with a population of about 400, the second floor of the Alameda County Courthouse collapsed, and many other buildings were destroyed. At its northern end, the Hayward fault runs across undeveloped land in a regional shoreline park. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. Many brick walls, cornices, and other heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city fell, and the U.S. The Hayward Fault is a major earthquake fault that runs for nearly 45 miles (72 km) through the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay region. and if you can, can u guys also tell me the most recent major earthquake along this fault, and also problems we would encounter if we have another major earthquake along this fault… USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault, meaning that motion along it is mainly horizontal, so that objects on the opposite side of the fault from the viewer will move to the viewer’s right as slip occurs. Vous avez dit Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont? This is a good place to see the fault in its natural setting, where a big quake will do little more than knock you on your butt. The earthquake occurred at 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868. The fault passes through the University of California Berkeley football stadium (left), and past earthquake movements have significantly offset Hamilton Gulch (center). Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. Rock Types Associated with the Hayward Fault, California Article CITATIONS 4 READS 13 1 author: Diane E Moore United States Geological Survey 106 PUBLICATIONS 2,478 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Diane E Moore Retrieved on: 19 September 2016. Activity on the different segments of the fault includes moderate and large earthquakes as well as aseismic creep. The Hayward Fault runs along the foot of the East Bay hills, something that all residents of the Bay Area, and the East Bay in particular, should know. Prenez le volant d’une voiture de type Camionette lorsque vous arrivez à Hayward Fault Exposed. ShakeMap showing the inferred intensity of ground shaking in the 1868 earthquake (measured as MMI, or Modified Mercalli Intensity), compared to a ShakeMap for the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. Dot size indicates the present relative population sizes of cities. In order to better understand mechanisms of active faults, we studied relationships between fault behavior and rock units along the Hayward fault using a three-dimensional geologic map. The last large event was the 1984 Morgan Hill event and the last moderate earthquake was the 2007 Alum Rock event. Section I (Stops 1–4) consists of stops that are part of the University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), including research facilities, retrofit of campus buildings, and geomorphic features along the fault. Motion over millions of years has brought different sets of rocks next to each other on the fault trace. Earth scientists have long branded the Hayward Fault the Bay Area's deadliest, where a truly "Big One" is inevitable at some unforeseen time. At Mission San Jose, in southern Fremont, the adobe church built in 1809 and other mission buildings were heavily damaged. The purple line is the little-known Miller Creek fault. The Hayward Fault has ruptured about every 140 years for its previous five large earthquakes. what type of fault is the hayward fault "Our data support more of a model for irregular occurrence," she says.Nearby faults add another level of uncertainty. of the Hayward fault from Lienkaemper and others (1991); gray lines, major highways and roads. Google Scholar. 6 Igneous rocks are presented first, and they are grouped according to rock type. Traveller type. The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes.This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay.It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. This is a type of shearing force where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. Search for other works by this author on: GSW. If that is the case, the longer fault system could produce larger temblors. 9 8 R - 1 3 SSaa n LLeeanddrroo S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y o y 5 D A P 0 0 7. The chapter reviewed the descriptions of surface faulting, collected damage and felt reports, and interviewed survivors of the earthquake. Hayward Fault connection. Such an earthquake could unexpectedly change people’s lives and impact the Bay Area’s infrastructure and economy, but updated building codes and retrofits, as well as planning, community training, and preparedness, will help reduce the effects of a future Hayward Fault earthquake. A second factor making the Hayward Fault so dangerous is that its most recent damaging earthquake was more than 150 years ago. But the most significant improvement in shaking resistance was the advent of steel-frame buildings in 1885. A. ALLAM,1 Y. BEN-ZION,1 and Z. PENG 2 Abstract—We observe fault zone head waves (FZHW) that are generated by and propagate along a roughly 80 km section of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area. It suggests that either the fault is creeping there, or there has been recent seismic slip.” In fact, according to Watt et al., even the most recent prehistoric earthquakes along the Rodgers Creek fault and Hayward faults, which struck sometime between 1715 and 1776, could have been a single combined event given dating uncertainties. Here’s a zoom-in to the lower right corner, showing the upper part of Arroyo Viejo and the valley of a defunct little stream that I’m calling Arroyo Viejito. The Seismic Hazard Mapping Program addresses the secondary earthquake hazards of liquefaction (the inability of water-saturated, heavily shaken soil to support structures) and landslides. An example of a dip-slip or transform fault is the San Andreas fault in California. To estimate the shaking intensity, it is necessary to consider the construction of the damaged buildings, that is, whether they were adobe, brick, or wood. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. Ongoing slip and aftershocks along the Hayward Fault may last for months, further damaging buildings and infrastructure that straddle the fault. Although the region was then sparsely populated, this quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California?s history. We will see examples at points 5.2 and 5.4 on this tour. The Hayward fault is considered a branch within the San Andreas Fault system (fig 1). Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. Réservez maintenant, payez plus tard avec Expedia. A major seaport and rail terminal as well as a county seat, Oakland is aware of its vulnerability and is slowly getting better prepared for the inevitable large earthquake on the Hayward fault. Fault activity is monitored using seismic instruments, which are important for research into modern-day fault behavior. We dedicate this story to the memory of USGS seismologist John (Jack) Boatwright, who was passionate about making the San Francisco Bay Area more earthquake resilient, and who died shortly before the 150th anniversary of the destructive 1868 Hayward Earthquake. Ominously, it appears that major earthquakes have appeared with an average interval of 138 years between them over the last millennium. The Hayward Fault is shorter than the San Andreas, running about 70 kilometers from Fremont to Point Pinole, and is therefore not expected to produce the magnitude-8-plus quakes we know the San Andreas can generate. Historical land-survey data suggest that the fault broke as far north as Berkeley, with an average horizontal offset of about 6 feet (2 meters). By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk. Recently, the USGS and its partners developed the “HayWired” scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. It’s a perfect time to practice Drop, Cover, and Hold On, to check your emergency kit, and to test your earthquake response plans. 1. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. All reviews central park fascinating. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Because of the high urban density of the area, it runs through and the gap in time between its most recent rupture, it is considered one of the most hazardous faults in the world. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. Hundreds of homes and other structures are built along the fault trace, and mass transit corridors, major freeways, and many roadways cross it at numerous locations. The forces associated with the fault have pushed up the East Bay hills on the east and dropped down the San Francisco Bay block on the west. What are the Different Kinds? As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. Some textbook examples of fault-related features occur in Hayward, at the center of the fault, and are easily seen within walking distance of the Bay area's light-rail line, BART. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. All three faults are right-lateral strike-slip faults. Because the approximate location of the Hayward Fault, its potential for significant earthquakes were known at the time of construction, Howard adapted the design of the stadium accordingly. Filter. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake. As of 2016, the last eruption was 148 years ago. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. As demonstrated by the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and Maria, recovery from catastrophic events can take years. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. Red lines are major earthquake faults; black line shows the portion of the Hayward Fault that ruptured in 1868; diamonds show locations of damage reports (1868) and seismic recordings (1989). Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. Other important engineering lessons from the 1868 earthquake, though actively discussed at the time, were not heeded. (I’ll return to that.) The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake fault in the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. 1. In San Francisco, the largest city on the west coast with a population of 150,000, five people were killed and property losses were significant. Combining these intensity estimates with current knowledge of earthquake effects and geology allows researchers to create a “ShakeMap” that depicts the inferred intensity of shaking throughout the region in 1868 and can also be used to predict damage to modern buildings. Earth Sciences. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault at Central Park Group members: Marissa Saltos, Micaela Villarroel. In 1996, an 18-millimeter creep event, the largest ever observed on the Hayward fault, occurred between surveys 63 days apart. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that the fault may be ready to produce another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. (Public domain. Reverse, Strike-Slip, Oblique, and Normal Faults, A History of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Introduction to Convergent Plate Boundaries, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. On April 15, 2006, Drs. English. Seismic Imaging of a Bimaterial Interface Along the Hayward Fault, CA, with Fault Zone Head Waves and Direct P Arrivals A. It still ranks as one of the most destructive earthquakes in California’s history, but this is not the end of the story. intensity: IX : Casualties: 30: Damaged building in Hayward (top) and at the Hayward stud mill. Much of what we know about the 1868 quake is documented in a chapter of an important report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which was published in 1908. Numerous witnesses reported seeing the ground move in waves. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North … On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. Traveler type. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 quake is in 2018; scientists are convinced that the Hayward Fault has reached the point where a powerful, damaging earthquake can be expected at any time. Hayward is a city in the East Bay area of Alameda County, California.It has a population of 144,186. However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. The crustal structure across the northern Hayward Fault zone, in the vicinity of Berkeley, is rather complex with a lateral bedrock velocity contrast of approximately 30 across the fault zone with the SW side fast and also with an attenuation contrast across the fault zone with the NE side having higher attenuation as evidenced by the variability in the observed seismic ground motions shown in Figure 16.2. Two factors combine to make the Hayward Fault very dangerous. "The Hayward Fault is a tectonic time bomb," said U.S. Geological Survey senior seismologist Tom Brocher. The Hayward fault runs through the East Bay hills from San Jose through Richmond. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. The cracking of the ground along the Hayward Fault was traced about 20 miles (32 km) from San Leandro to Warm Springs in Fremont, although modeling of survey data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average amount of horizontal movement along the fault is inferred to be about 6 feet (1.9 meters). The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller … Over 8.7 million Californians and nearly 54 million globally are already planning to participate. Earthquake. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Tectonic Landforms: Escarpments, Ridges, Valleys, Basins, Offsets. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, an offshoot of the San Andreas Fault, near Hollister. It is believed to link with the … Strike-Slip Faults. They retrofit masonry buildings with iron tie-rods and anchors between floors and walls, and they designed and implemented systems to make new buildings more resistant to shaking. ), A filtered vertical laser image, taken using a technique called light detection and ranging (LIDAR), of part of the Hayward Fault (red lines) in the City of Berkeley. Custom House and several other structures built on land reclaimed from the former Yerba Buena Cove (today’s Financial District) sustained severe damage. This research, carried out in hundreds of places, has documented approximately 2000 years of large earthquakes up and down the Hayward fault. The section of the Hayward Fault that produced the 1868 Hayward earthquake is highlighted in yellow. These measures combined to ensure that buildings built in San Francisco between 1868 and 1906 survived the powerful shaking of the 1906 San Francisco quake, with the exception of the San Francisco City Hall. Magnitude 6.8 October 21, 1868, Hayward Fault Earthquake. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Note that the interval between successive quakes has varied from 95 to 183 years, averaging 150 years, and it is now more than 150 years since the 1868 earthquake. USGS scientists have found evidence for 12 quakes on the southern Hayward Fault during the past 1,900 years. In the early morning of October 21, 1868, seismic waves from a powerful earthquake raced through the fog-shrouded San Francisco Bay area. 3) reverse fault Introduction [2] The Hayward Fault is located on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay, California, and forms one branch of the San Andreas Fault system that accommodates the relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. A probability map shows a 33-percent chance of that massive quake happening along the Hayward fault, which is considered the most dangerous in … In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. The Hayward Fault. But the only way to learn the history of a fault before written records is to dig trenches across it and closely study the sediments. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that... Office of Communications and Publishing12201 Sunrise Valley DriveReston, VA 20192United StatesPhone: 703-648-4460. Hayward is the sixth largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area and the third largest in Alameda County, It is on the Bay's eastern shore, next to Union City.The San Mateo-Hayward Bridge starts there. Geologic Faults What Is It? The most dangerous fault in the Bay Area is, as of now, due to fail at any time. Pool Pumps Pool Heaters Pool Cleaners Pool Sanitization Pool Automation ... Hayward websites have been developed in compliance with standards for Internet Explorer 10 or later. At depth, the Hayward fault merges smoothly into the southern part of the Calaveras fault, and the two may rupture together in a larger earthquake than either could produce alone. Frightened people ran out of their homes, and cattle and even fire-engine horses panicked and bolted. October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. By Pool Type . The Calaveras Fault is a major branch of the San Andreas Fault System that is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. Shaking was felt as far away as Nevada, and aftershocks rattled the Bay Area for weeks. The Hayward Fault pretty much runs through the center of downtown Fremont and many of its suburban neighborhoods where this walk is located. USGS and other scientists have used the 1908 report, as well as historical newspaper accounts, photographs, pioneer diaries, and letters, to understand the shaking effects and gauge the size of the 1868 earthquake. That report stated that there’s a 31 percent chance the Hayward Fault will produce a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next three decades.The fault runs parallel to and east of the San Andreas Fault. YouTube That was the initial estimated magnitude of the quake, which had happened just over an hour earlier. The red stripe, which I added, represents the Hayward fault. Popular mentions . Fremont, California 94,093 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. (Public domain.). 1) strike-slip fault. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. The dates for earthquakes before 1868 are based on radiocarbon dating. The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. The annual global earthquake drill, Shakeout, will be held on Thursday 18 October 2018, at 10:18 AM. The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible story of an earthquake and its aftermath that happens in the Haward Fault. 2) normal fault. All reviews central park fascinating. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary, along with the rest of the San Andreas fault complex. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. Scientists estimate that the magnitude of the 1868 quake was 6.8. San Jose, a town of about 9,000 that lies several miles south and west of the fault trace, had few wrecked buildings but many fallen chimneys. By Thomas M. Brocher, Jack Boatwright, James J. Lienkaemper, Carol S. Prentice, David P. Schwartz, and Howard Bundock. After the 1868 quake, and a previous one in 1865, damaged San Francisco, engineers worked to strengthen buildings throughout the Bay Area. William L. Ellsworth. Even though the region was only sparsely populated at the time, the 1868 quake killed about 30 people and caused great property damage. What type of fault is the Hayward Fault? The occasion on Friday was a photo op for the press. Today, Hayward, as it is now spelled, has a new city hall building that is built to ride on a lubricated foundation during a major quake like a kid on a skateboard. 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Heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city of Oakland is the largest ever observed on the Fault! Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault was one of the 1868 quake... Chapter reviewed the descriptions of surface faulting, collected damage and felt reports, and leaning walls stronger of! That the new towns and growing cities of the Hayward Fault so dangerous is that most... Ever experienced earthquake Country, usgs General Information Products 15, 41, and Maria, recovery from events. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake its last major earthquake occurred October! The 1868 quake killed about 30 people and, injuring 30, Fremont, CA thoughtco uses cookies provide. Gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the Fault nearly million..., Palomares, Miller … by Pool type 10:18 AM as transportation and utilities, and,. The more accurate relative arrival times, the last millennium, Carol S. Prentice, David P.,...