Certain non-Buddhists who accept rebirth accept the transitory nature of mind and body, but they believe in a self that is permanent, changeless and unitary. And since each color has its own unique place in that spectrum, the real properties in question do not remain constant across all colors.Again, this just presupposes that each specific color exists within the same totality or framework. The best that we can say is that laying eggs in chickens resembles laying eggs in platypuses, and all that ultimately means is that the manner of reproduction of chickens resembles the reproduction of platypuses more than they resemble the reproduction of humans (for example). As such, Aquinas shows that existence is not a static “something” but an action. X must exist on one part of the hierarchy and Y must exist on another part of the hierarchy, and depending upon their positions in the hierarchy, they bear a certain proximity to one another. I think that is why Aquinas calls the divine ideas “forms” at ST 1.15.1, because they are what accounts for what kinds of things substances can be or are by virtue of their status as ideal archetypes or models of the kings of things that substances can be. To say anything further would be to admit that one can analyze the likeness between X and Y further, which necessarily means involving composition of some kind, because analysis is the breaking down of a whole into its constituent parts. 3. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction. Metaphysical priority? However, I would agree that his comment doesn't solve the confusion. This is defined as a state of being, or of continuing to live within the atmosphere, no matter the state. @JeremyMy unsolicited advice concerning the frustration with your church comes via a local church sign: "The church is a gift from God - some assembly required. Further, you are overlooking the fact that resemblance theorists are not committed to the claim that all resemblance relations are irreducible; rather, they are committed to the claim that some kind of resemblance relation is irreducible, and we are simply using the context of color as an example of what a resemblance theorist could do with a field that is obviously resemblance-heavy from the get-go. Brandon: Yes, you said it; you also said that thewhole spectrum is in each color. Sameness ultimately relies on shades of likeness, from what Aquinas calls "perfect likeness" to mere analogy. Okay, fair enough since I'm not going to read them. And, regarding God's knowledge through forms, you have to be careful with translations here. If it means "exactly similar" then we're now talking about Ockham, I think. There's no reason to say that they aren't on the same team, since the resemblance theorist is concerned with ontic and ontological resemblance only.First, it is not an artifact of language that sports teams exist. If you have any other such examples I would really like to hear them. A group of individuals that are very similar in certain ways. If unobserved particles didn't exist, then they couldn't be unobserved particles: they would be nothing. If it is a metaphor, then you must specify what property is being transferred from a created being to the divine intellect. Your position seems equivalent to saying that one can use a different ruler (i.e. species), and similar measure (e.g. Aquinas makes similar arguments in the SCG.In another sense, there are two, because there are two kinds of forms, i.e. This we do by means of our knowledge of form, beginning with substantial form, hence with essence. It's an artifact of language agreed upon by a community of language users. It's not something physical.”That’s true in so far as we consider humanity in the abstract. Thus there must be partial sameness and partial differentness in two things that are the same.And I don't see how this is incompatible with anaolgy, since we say that God is like his creatures in the sense that they are both beings. The point of the uniqueness is that if you posit resemblance relations, colors are placed in the spectrum by their unique resemblance relations to each other, and there's no need for partial identity. My apologies.If it is an analogy, then you must specify in what way there is a resemblance between the divine mind and something else that we know better.The analogy is the one that we've gone back to time and time again: the one between exemplar and product. On the other hand, I have met (again, both in person and in print) many who like her ideas, but hate her novels.Contrast, for instance, this with Mencken. Formal sameness is a kind of primordial likeness without identity. For example, say that I say that Socrates is like Plato. I'm a bit out of time tonight, but glancing over, what look like the most important points:A resemblance theorist would deny that red and blue actually have anything in commonThe resemblance theorist would more probably deny that the resemblance of red and blue can be given an account that does not involve resemblance relations, which is not at all the same thing, and consistent with red and blue having lots of things in common. I'm a little confused.Do you know whether what Craig was saying about the speed of light being constant between two points not having any proof? Only material entities are limited in such a way, I think. So, it is not enough to say that if X has a unique relation of resemblance to all colors of the spectrum, then X is a color. What Does "Existence" Mean in Mathematics? Let's see how the average modern philosopher will respond to that! You would have to demarcate one set of “unique resemblance relations” between different things, and say that within this boundary, you have colors, and outside of this boundary, you do not have colors. I don't know - maybe I'm over-speculating too.Atheists, eh? It cannot be simultaneously an analogy and a metaphor, because they are different.I wasn't trying to have it both ways. I still don’t understand the objection for why this account is so wrong and unacceptable.Also, you say that you do not accept the resemblance theory. The individualistic worldview is highly unconventional, and conflicts badly with more communitarian outlooks. In On the Making of Man 16.9, he writes:“While two natures— the Divine and incorporeal nature, and the irrational life of brutes— are separated from each other as extremes, human nature is the mean between them: for in the compound nature of man we may behold a part of each of the natures I have mentioned—of the Divine, the rational and intelligent element, which does not admit the distinction of male and female; of the irrational, our bodily form and structure, divided into male and female: for each of these elements is certainly to be found in all that partakes of human life.”Note how he says that human nature is partly the divine, immaterial and intellectual nature and partly the brutish, material and irrational nature. I was a bit disappointed to see Prof. Feser miss the chance to mock Rand, though. I don’t think the resemblance theorist would deny that we can talk about human nature in general while remaining silent about particular human beings.for attributes, similarity is cashed out on a case-by-case basis by seeing whether the similarity ultimately bottoms out in an identity or in a resemblance that we can't further reduce; and that the test for the latter is whether we can isolate a fully specific attribute that the two substances or particulars share.Can you explain what mean by “a fully specific attribute that the two substances or particulars share”? “It is the nature of every actuality to communicate itself insofar as it is possible.” -St. Thomas Aquinas. Is there any difference at all between F itself and F-in-X? Perhaps some analogate of the essence of a tree exists there. But similarity will always involve some kind of intrinsic relation or intension.It seems to me it's easier to argue that similarity always involves partial sameness and partial difference if we are not taking sameness in the sense of identity as partly defined by the Identity of Indiscernibles. (Experiencing, recognising it as an entity, identifying its properties, and integrating those properties into a hierarchy of concepts about instances, types and relationships. Even 50 years after publication her works were selling half a million a year. For what is at issue here is exactly what evidence of the supernatural we may learn by our sensory experience of reality, and Aquinas would claim that we learn of the supernatural by our knowledge of the natural. In general, the idea is that for any X and Y, if X is like Y, then the likeness between X and Y relates through the likeness between X and Y. It's somewhat reassuring in that respect - to find that the notions of the scholastics were not quite as unintelligible as they seemed. Is that true? How would you explain this?Perfect likeness is when two forms are formally the same and numerically different (= they have a primordial likeness to one another), and they are expressed in the same measure. Thus the relation chain is not infinite.First, I don’t see how this solves the problem. I think the concept is much more flexible than that. My initial use of the word "metaphor" was sloppy and imprecise, and it caused the following confusion. All knowledge begins with our acquaintance with concrete particulars, but if we are to ascend from mere knowledge of things as this thing or that thing, we have to form judgments based on the abstraction of the universal from the particular. Those professors (and who were 50 or 60 yrs old at the time) who taught me Greek, late antique or Medieval Philosophy were themselves former students to some extent or another of Gilson - probably as I recall, through their post grad work - in Toronto.I imagined at the time that it was the most esoteric study still available in the the cabinet of historical curiosities.And frankly, it comes as a shock to me that anyone anywhere even has a living enough interest in Scotism (as opposed to a purely disinterested historical one) to consider that they have a dog in the fight.I supposed the last person invested in Scotism died in the 1970s, with the shuttering of some obscure friary or seminary somewhere in Pennsylvania or Belgium ... or Southfield, Michigan.Live and learn.It's part of what makes this site worth visiting. For the resemblance theorist, "belonging to a spectrum" doesn't pick out one single literally common attribute but a different attribute for each color, and it's your proposed common attribute that requires further analysis.But why doesn’t it “pick out one single literally common attribute”? How are two forms more alike and less alike? Most attempts to dismiss her work as bad literature is due to people who want to hate her writing because they hate her views; ironic, since her writing is the result of the fact that Rand -- who was not exactly open-minded -- loved Hugo's writing despite hating his views. ists 1. @dguller:"Thus far, I haven't seen any examples of such a 'rock bottom' resemblance. Does free will actually exist? For example, rational beings are similar in that they are all rational, but in different ways. It is the most basic kind of action that accounts for existence itself. being” only exists in the form of God. The existence of evil, while sometimes put forth as evidence against the existence of God, is actually evidence for the existence of God, said Christian apologist Frank Turek. But whether Aquinas was right or wrong about that, my main point is that the form/matter distinction relies on the essence/existence distinction in some way (and might, very arguably, be equivalent to it if Aquinas was mistaken about angels) and so can't simply replace it. Causality? In fact, the process goes full circle as it is the very act of self-communication that, in turn, perfects us as creatures. To the resemblance theorist, it is inexplicable, but intuitively obvious. Whether any phenomenon truly exists is open to debate. Because there is no sensory evidence for the supernatural, she does not believe in the supernatural. Things with a perfect likeness are said to be of the same species--a univocal predication. How would you explain this?We can still say that human X and human Y share some trait Z, but "human" and "trait" cannot be conceived as universals. Nor can you complain about these particular relations being irreducible, because, again, you have no way of eliminating the existence of irreducible relations. (Unfortunately Substance and Attribute, the main work in which Loux develops and defends that view, is prohibitively expensive, so I haven't been able to read much of it directly.) The world is full of people who do agree, but still think she is a bad novelist. But it is meaningless to say that this statement, or even the whole general formalism, is falsifiable; quite clearly, properties such as position, etc. Essence is an ontological category, while form is ontic. But there is this persistent characteristic of people, particularly Americans: they like to feel in control. You'll find that existence isn't a property that can be negated (and in that sense isn't really a property at all). It cannot be analyzed further than, "These two things are alike in a very strict way." your remark on Gilson's "Being and Some Philosophers".It's certainly a well written book in my opinion, and, in a particular way. Jan 27, 2019 |. Gregory is simply stating that if the image was like God in all ways, then it would not be distinct from God. We see this, for instance, in your argument that resemblance theorists can't talk about how X resembles Y. Modern, Fregean metaphysics just don't do it justice. Every one of us seeks happiness in our own way. And to be honest, I don't think there's any real need to. It implies for example, that the speed of light is the top speed for any massless particle or wave (and thus any signal) for when the speed -> c, the energy needed to accelerate -> infinity. "But isn't this identical in each?" The existence of an orderly universe containing life points to a Creator. Step2,I wasn't really suggesting they were refuted thus, but simply pointing out that Hari is not just leftwing, but a particularly shrill, leftwing hack with a proven record of making things up. "Just out of curiosity, would you describe yourself as a resemblance nominalist? The things which God has made are like him in this way. Calling it an F presupposes that it is universal, and that it is coherent to discuss one thing being in multiple places.First, although one material thing cannot be present in multiple places at the same time, I don’t see any reason why one immaterial thing cannot be present in multiple places at the same time. I have not read Rand's novels. So, the only reason that the specific colors have the relations to each other that they do is that they exist as parts of the same electromagnetic spectrum. :-), surely it is apocryphal, right? The former corresponds to numerical distinction, and the latter corresponds to formal identity. Furthermore, none of this explains how a resemblance theorist can claim that one pair of resemblances is more like another pair of resemblances. (More than some of the intros to phil of mind I know of that just sketch it toward the end.). Maritain cites it at p. 20 of his, Now as I From what I’ve read, a form is an intelligible principle that accounts for what kind of thing something is supposed to be(come). I don't think he ever repeated that solution, but, rather, went along with Aristotle's lame notion that the one form is multiplied by its relationship to materia. X-A-B-Y). . @rank sophist: Could you expand on that. Would the resemblance theorist agree that the predicate is either N1 or N2 or N3 or … or Nn is true of each node in the network? I am not asking about the relationship between two substances, but rather between two forms. In politics I'm an arch-traditionalist and Tory, wistfully partial even to the Old Cause, and in religion and philosophy a Christian Platonist and a somewhat frustrated member of the Church of England. Specifically about any phenomenon or entity that physical theory postulates that has no experimental support. Rather, they are radically different and incommensurable entities. any color must occupy a nonzero expanse of space and endure for a nonzero length of time, that it can therefore be divided into parts, and that the denier of real universals therefore seems to be in the odd position of denying that even one thing can be "the same.". Two questions:First, is my above account consistent with what a resemblance theorist would affirm?Second, what makes the relations between the nodes within the network in question resemblances at all? "For whatever it's worth, I have . The basic issue is: can something or a some part of something be OTHER than another thing and NOT OTHER than the other thing at the same time and in the same respect. Even in an unobserved state, virtual particles still exist, as do the fields in which they appear. There's no reason to say that they aren't on the same team, since the resemblance theorist is concerned with ontic and ontological resemblance only. I would say that although all three share being an animal in common, Plato and Socrates share being a rational animal while Fido the dog is a non-rational animal. His actual ideas aren't all that far from Rand's, but he has many, many, more devotees who delight in him, while disagreeing with most he says. Not really a clear explanation. But “Some Furthermore, if the resemblance theorist affirms that some resemblances can be cashed out in terms of partial identity and partial difference, and other resemblances cannot, then do you know what the criteria is that the resemblance theorist uses to determine when a resemblance can be cashed out in such a way, and when it cannot?I’d appreciate Scott’s input, as well, if he has the time. Just because my thought about X occurs within my intellect, it does not follow that my thought is simultaneously about X-in-intellect. In that case, if X is like Y, then all one can say is that X is like Y, and nothing else. When I see red I do not see a code: it is not like a child's drawing book where numbers indicate different colours that need to be filled in. And while Rand was an entertaining novelist I regard her forays into philosophy as no better than any other amateur effort. For Aquinas, a form fits into the "incomplete constituent principle" framework, while an essence refers to the substance. For example, say that Plato is like Socrates. In other words, I think your proposed dichotomy is probably a false one. Most attempts to dismiss her work as bad literature is due to people who want to hate her writing because they hate her views; ironic, since her writing is the result of the fact that Rand -- who was not exactly open-minded -- loved Hugo's writing despite hating his views.Two of Rand's works, Anthem and Atlas Shrugged, are also technically science fiction (the first far-future and the second near-future); and when read as such they are head and shoulders they compare very well with more standard science fiction classics. Thomas Metzinger, however, believes the opposite, “The brain is a system that is continually trying to prove its own existence,” he said. For example, we may never know all the ins and outs of what it means to be a tree, but we certainly have the form of treeness in our intellect, and the form of treeness must exist in the divine intellect as the ideal archetype of treeness from which all trees are derived from.Well, first of all, I disagree that the form of treeness exists in the divine mind in any but an indirect fashion. Yet existence, in fact, does … That is all it means to say that X and Y share F in common, i.e. If a form is identical to another form, then it is numerically and formally the same in two places, which is a contradiction. Things that are formally the same are properly said to share univocal likeness. @dguller:"[I]f 'being a color' just meant 'existing within the electromagnetic spectrum between frequency F1 and frequency F2', and this remained constant in each color, then that would be a single factor present in each color that made it a color at all. Heavenly Light by Jeff P / CC BY 2.0. Their 'becoming' usually doesn't make it all the way into 'being' unless they are dragged over the threshold of existence by singular quarks, which need to make a twosome or threesome (the process of 'hadronization'). Yes, you said it; you also said that thewhole spectrum is in each color. The focus of this wiki will be on ways in which the limit of a function can fail to exist at a given point, even when the function is defined in a neighborhood of the point. false? But, in another sense, F is not identical in them, because F exists in a different mode of being in each, which would be numerical distinction. Individuals pre-exist in God.So, he’s not saying that divine ideas are not forms, but only that in the case of divine ideas about material entities, there must be a divine idea that corresponds to the form-matter composite itself, and not a specific divine idea for the form and another divine idea for the matter.He's saying that God knows the composite directly, and that he virtually comprehends form and matter because he knows the composite. Take a specific claim, and assume someone is a resemblance theorist about it. I like Rand no better than the next man, but Hari is a leftwing hack. the lack of evidence for Aether) and all sorts of basic physical principles. If creation and God shared something in common, which we can call C, then what would C be? Why can’t being a part of the totality be a single property? Rank Sophist: "In any case I think it can safely be said that Aquinas's reputation for clear, simple and solid argumentation is based on next to nothing. 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